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Education Curriculum in South Africa

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A school curriculum refers to chosen program content and experiences of learning which is given by schools in South Africa and has a capability of changing and modifying the behavior of the learner. I agree with the fact that the curriculum should not be viewed as a harmless document, which automatically educates learners for the better, but should rather flow from a comprehensive and critical reflection about the nature of knowledge, selection of content and its relevance, the needs of society, the realities of education system and of teachers among other things. Several factors are considered when choosing the content of education curriculum in South Africa. Such factors are discussed below together with their relevance to South African citizens.

National Goals of Education

Learning in South Africa is guided by philosophy and national goals that are affected by considerations of politics to achieve national identity. Development of curriculum can either be put under national or local level.

Number of Subject Options Available

A school normally cannot factor in a subject that is not on the curriculum of the country hence the curriculum of the school is limited to what South Africa offers in its list of subjects.

The Learner

South Africa’s school curriculum is determined greatly by the learner’s physical, emotional, and mental requirements. It focuses on the maturity and development level of the learner. Young learners should be taught what they can digest in relation to quantity and depth. For instance  in the primary level science, more emphasis is placed on the systems and processes which affect the learner’s life without stating the theories and principles behind their concepts. Complexity levels increase as the learner progresses in his or her education and it depends on the level of mental capacity.  In case of challenges, students may buy cheap custom essays and get more spare time for the other activities. The student’s physical condition has an impact on experience and subject selection. An individual cannot deliver knowledge on arts to blind people and music cannot be taught to deaf people.

Availability of Resources

Such resources comprise of learning equipment, materials and personal factors such as experience and qualifications. Schools in South Africa cannot choose to offer a certain subject just because it is offered in other learning institutions. A tertiary institution should not teach computer studies if does not have an access to electricity or choose rugby game if it does not have a field and qualified coaches to coach the players. Curriculum developers must consider available resources before choosing subjects to be offered in the schools in South Africa.

The education curriculum of South Africa emphasizes on the need for learning institutions to interact with learners and community in their home environment In order to ensure that they have knowledge concerning history and background of the students. Studies have shown that when the background and community are factored in the education curriculum, the learning process most likely becomes efficient. In South Africa, the colonial education was focused on an individual only and ignored communalism, which is treasured in African communities. From Chinua Achebe’s novel of things fall apart, the idea of picking what is best in Africa and combining it with what is best from the west is put across clearly.

 The limitation of colonial education in South Africa was that they brought to an end teaching of traditional values in the curriculum. Education in South Africa is currently faced by the challenges of trying to incorporate indigenous knowledge in their education curriculum. The culture of Africans is related to social modes, religious beliefs, and moral values and this is shown in narration art and the use of riddles and proverbs. Bude states that handicraft, songs, design, agricultural layout, and dance form a part of African indigenous knowledge systems. Schools have an option of either maintaining the status core or teaching western education values instead of indigenous cultures. The second option is factoring in African culture values to equip the curriculum that South Africa has with indigenous knowledge systems. It will lead to a paradigm shift, which recreates previous knowledge related to western culture. Indigenous knowledge systems have to be a part of democratic control over the social and political structures of the society of South Africa. South Africans need to use indigenous knowledge systems so as to emancipate education during their process of transforming the education curriculum. It will aid in transition from Apartheid Education to the Revised National Curriculum statement enrichment of the society values.

Education curriculum in South Africa is not as economically, politically, and socially innocent as it appears to be. Parents are expected to show responsibility in assessing the outcomes of the evaluation of the school curriculum themselves such as if the private schools impact the required knowledge to their learners. Meaningful education can be described using the following words: transformation, dialogue, liberator social change and freedom. Such are the terms used to give a definition of what we expect from a system of education that is Africanized to inspire to. Teachers play crucial roles in implementing the policies of education in South Africa. A majority of researchers have stated that the issues in introducing outcomes based education (OBE) in South Africa in 1997 was because teachers were not included in formulating the curriculum policies.

In the process of transition from the strategies of the past to more liberal forms of transformational pedagogy, teachers should be involved. In most cases, teachers are usually blamed for any failure in the curriculum.

Among the issues that are addressed by the education curriculum of South Africa there is the idea of democracy outside and inside the classroom. Teachers are required to be promoters of democracy according to policies of OBE. However, even if teachers have understood certain types of democracy in the society as required by the South African Constitution, they are still slow in delivering this knowledge to their students. The trend, however, towards bringing democracy to the society requires that the job of teachers must not only be effective but also sufficiently enable democracy. It is not easy considering the teachers role in the past curriculum whereby they were not considered as a part of democratic process. Teachers stood in the middle of the ground contested on the one hand by the community, pupils, and parents and on the other hand by the state. It implies that they are government employees on one-hand and community members on the other. Teachers were blamed on their inefficiency from both sides but this has stopped since the introduction of the new curriculum.

The curriculum of South Africa has presented new challenges regarding to how democracy should be dealt with by the teachers. If the society has to embrace its curriculum partly through formal education, teachers have to be trained and consulted so as to ensure that there are no complications in curriculum implementation.

The challenges facing education systems in South Africa are currently reflected by the fact that education is viewed as a priority on all agendas such as local, national or provincial. Development in the society drives thinkers of education to establish the status and roles of education in a democratic society.

During a national Congress of the Education Association of South Africa (EASA) the education minister Dr. Bengu, highlighted on some values and principles, which must guide how the government handles education in South Africa. According to this minister, education should enable all individuals to value, have access to, and become successful in the end. The choice of the curriculum should be diversified so as to prepare the rising numbers of adults and youth with the skills and education which are needed by the economy and also for career development and further learning. The states resources should be shared according to the principle of equity in order to ensure that the same quality of education is offered to all citizens. Special emphasis should be placed on the cases of education inequalities to the disadvantaged people in the society.

How to Improve the Situation

Improvement of the education quality and training services is important. Improvement of the efficiency and productivity is important as well so as to support the systems cost to the public. Such principles agree with the provisions of the White Paper whereby special attention is given to the organization, funding of schools and governance. In brief the paper stated that the new structure of the school organization should develop conditions for developing a flexible, coherent and integrated national system which advances redress, democratic governance, equitable use of public resources, school-based decision making within provincial guidelines and improvement in the quality of education across the system.

The education reality in South Africa should be brought about by a good managed process of a negotiated change of the previous educational dispensation basing on the fact that all public schools should embody a partnership between local community and provincial education authorities.

From the point of view of education, South Africa can be seen as a country with both third world and first world sectors which face different types of challenges. The third world faces the challenge of shortage of educational facilities, high population growth, poor economics and education policies which favor other classes. It also experiences the challenge of school readiness of large sections of third world populations considering cultural transitions and differences.

First world sector is already leaving the industrial age while the broader mass of South African society is prepared to enter the industrial age. Such discrepancy is the one which leads to South Africa’s dual crisis in education. The first world is moving in to an information age.

Summary and Suggestions

The South African education curriculum is much concerned with the need for schools to interact with students and the community at large in the society in order to ensure that they are aware of the background and history of the learners. The background and community of the learners should be considered when designing the education curriculum so that the learning process becomes efficient

The challenges facing the education curriculum of South Africa is trying to incorporate indigenous knowledge. The African culture is related with social modes, religious beliefs and moral values and this is reflected in narration of art and the use of proverbs and riddles.

Meaningful education can be described using the following words: transformation, dialogue, liberal social change and freedom. Such are the terms used to give a definition of what we expect from a system of education that is Africanized to inspire to. Teachers play a crucial role in the implementation of the curriculum and they need to be motivated so that they can do a good job.

Improvement of the education quality and training services is important. Improvement of the efficiency and productivity is important so as to support the systems cost to the public. Such principles agree with the provisions of the White Paper whereby special attention is given to the organization, funding of schools and proper governance. Teachers should be given a good training and compensation so that democracy can be enhanced in the society. It is mainly due to the fact that teachers are the ones who deliver this knowledge to the future prospective citizens of South Africa. The South African education curriculum should be able to factor in beneficial African cultures which will help in mentoring its learning population.

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Education

How to Come up with Creative Ideas for Your Research

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Sometimes there are not enough ideas for scientific research. It seems like everything has already been studied. Actually it is not. Where to get research topics or how to come up with one – read the article.

Where to Get Ideas for Scientific Research

The topic often grows out of what excites and touches us to the core – not only at lectures and seminars, but also outside the academic environment: it can be a fact of your biography or a problem that worries.

You can use essay writing service to order the essay you need. To come up with a theme:

  • think about what issues discussed in class are important to you;
  • address disputes and conflicts between different researchers (classical and modern, in books and at conferences), try to understand different points of view and find your own approach;
  • reflect on topics that hook you in the context of social issues and personal reflections.

Record your thoughts in the simplest possible way in a notepad or in a special application. The first idea can be very general and be expressed in one phrase – it is important to catch this blank for future work.

It is useful to have an electronic or paper notebook at hand during the entire course of work, depending on what you are used to. Our consciousness can throw a thought at any moment, and if it is not written down, it will be lost. At best, you will remember that you had some good idea; at worst, you won’t even remember that.

Do You Need to “Get Sick” with the Topic?

It’s good if the topic of an essay or dissertation arouses interest and emotions: love, passion, joyful excitement, or misunderstanding, irritation and anxiety. Such emotions are an invigorating driver that will not allow you to quit what you have started and will help you go through all the formal, routine and difficult stages of work: placing links, designing a bibliography, searching for sources, correct citation, etc.

There is another way to build relationships with text. The topic may not evoke any feelings – neither delight nor hatred. This means that you are rationally rather than emotionally building your path. Perhaps research on this topic will earn you a grant, or this paper needs to be written in order to complete a certain course. You have to live with your work for many hours, days, and sometimes months. If you are not indifferent to the topic, it will be easier for you to realize at every single moment why you are doing it. But there is a risk of entering into a “difficult (or even, as our interlocutors say, abusive) relationship with your own project both with a complete lack of interest and with excessive emotional involvement.

How to Choose a Topic according to Your Strength?

Think about it “lift”. A common mistake inexperienced researchers make is an optimistic view of time and opportunity. There will definitely be hitches, slowdowns, rewriting. Start from pessimistic forecasts. At best, you will have time, at worst, you will be mentally prepared.

You will need time to read and think about what you have read. If the research includes field work, it will take time to pilot and develop a draft (and, remember, to rewrite it). Allow time for all stages of research development, and not just for writing the final text.

Consult with the supervisor: ask if you have time to write a paper on the topic you are taking on. Teachers work a lot with texts, they will help to assess the amount of work, and, if necessary, narrow it down.

How to Make a Topic Unusual and Relevant?

This is necessary if you want to add an atypical field to your field, say something new, or go into interdisciplinarity. Try asking original questions. One of the scientists who started asking strange questions in sociology was Georg Simmel. For example: How does simple chatter happen and about what? How do people flirt? How do they have lunch? How do doors work in houses? Why does the picture have a frame? Such things simply could not come to the mind of serious researchers – but it turned out that this is possible.

Science fiction can serve as inspiration: it often describes what our world would look like if things went differently.

Relevance is the significance of a topic for your potential readership or for the general public, depending on the specialty. This is getting into the discussion that is being conducted around the issue of interest. You don’t write your paper in a vacuum: by writing you enter into a big conversation that takes place in your scientific field. The topic should be significant for someone – for 7 people, if you are dealing with an extremely exotic issue, for 50-300-500 people, if you write within the framework of some studies. Find conferences for researchers in your field or specialized journals. Look at the discussion going on there and think about what your topic might be of interest to your colleagues.

How to Combine Personal Interest and Relevance?

Yes, it sounds strange: on the one hand, you have to do what others do, because science is a team effort. On the other hand, you have to do something new, something new. On a field trampled down by thousands of researchers, you need to find a site where something valuable is hidden that others missed. Going and not repeating what others have already done is a creative task. To begin with, you can disagree with some of the researchers whose texts you read. You will need to find arguments to argue with these authors or offer something that they missed.

You do not know how your work will end? This is a big plus. You don’t have to pose a problem knowing how you’re going to end up solving it. The research task is precisely to discover the previously unobvious – for you, those around you and the discipline as a whole. Do not waste your time on everything that is understandable. You sit down to write a text to learn more and say something new, so cling to your questions.

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Education

How to Create an Effective Study Plan for Class 11th Mathematics?

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Whenever the individuals of class 11th are very much interested to score good marks in maths exam then they need to create a comprehensive study plan which is very much visible, political and easily accessible. Class 11 is known as one of the toughest academic years in the life of students which is the main reason that people have to face the elaborative curriculum with complex topics in this particular case. Several people are initially overwhelmed because of the vast nature of the syllabus which is the main reason that everybody needs to be very much clear about different kinds of technicalities. Apart from this normally the kids are also very much pressurise because of their dreams in terms of becoming a doctor, engineer, CA and so on in their life. Hence, to have a good hold over the basics of the field it is very much important for people to study the class 11 books very thoroughly and gain a conceptual understanding of the field without any kind of problem. This concept will not only help in fetching them good marks but will also help in making sure that everybody will be able to appear in the competitions as well without any kind of problem throughout the process.

Following are some of the very basic tips and tricks which people need to know about the mathematics in class 11th so that everybody will be on the right track scoring good marks very successfully:

1. Making the necessary preparations

The candidates in this particular area should perfectly begin by creating a comprehensive checklist in the shape of the topic and then dividing the subject into chapters. Concentrating on the basic themes in this particular area in which people can excel is advisable so that they can practise the best possible exam-style questions very easily. After completing this particular step people need to focus on the weak areas so that there will be no chance of any kind of trouble and everything will be carried out as per the best possible type of goals.

2. Making the list

Formulating the list is known as one of the best possible types of scoring well because things brought on paper will be very much successful in terms of providing people with multiple benefits. Getting the products, assignments and practicals done on the same day is very much important for people so that everybody will be having a good hold over the basics of the field without any kind of doubt.

3. Examining the examination paper

Before actually beginning to solve the maths exam it is very much important for people to perfectly browse over the question paper and determine which of the problems are very much successful in terms of providing them with confidence. These kinds of problems should be tackled in the very first instance so that everybody will be able to give a great boost to their self-confidence element. Solving the problems with ch 15 class 11 maths in this particular area is a very good idea and further looking through the best possible type of questions which are having a good amount of weightage in the exam is also equally important so that overall goals are very successfully achieved.

4. Sleeping property

If individuals are interested to have a good hold over the basics of the field of mathematics, then they always need to follow a comprehensive sleep schedule which will be capable of giving a great boost to their short-term and long-term memory. Sleeping tentatively for 7-8 hours every day is very much important for people so that everybody will be able to enjoy the guarantee of the knowledge which they have gained throughout the day and further will be retained in the overall brain without any kind of problem throughout the process.

5. Describing the things which people have learnt

People should try to explain the principles of a topic to somebody else who does not know it because this is the perfect opportunity of revising and ultimately gain the confidence about a good command of the basics of the field. Keeping the things polished and practising them is very much important so that everybody will be on the right track of dealing with the things without any kind of issue.

Conclusion

It is very much advisable for people to enjoy proper peace of mind at the time of dealing with the NCERT question answer so that there will be no chance of any kind of problem and stress will be eliminated from the whole process. Moving in a well-planned manner with the help of experts at Infinity Learn and referring to the notes is very much important for kids so that everybody will be able to get rid of hassle very easily and ultimately have a good hold over the subject of mathematics.

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Education

Mind Maps to Study at Super Speed!

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Mind Maps is one of the most powerful secrets to having excellent results in the study! But what are they, how do they work and how can you make them? Let’s see it in this article.

First of all, be careful not to confuse them with Concept Maps!

Read the article in which I’ll explain what are the differences between the two types of maps.

Let’s go on to say that Mind Maps are a wonderful tool that allows you to better understand and memorize information, thanks to the fact that they speak “the same language that your brain speaks”.

They were invented by the English cognitivist Tony Buzan, perhaps the world’s foremost expert on learning and memory.

Today they are used for various uses, but in this article, we will focus on their usefulness in the study and in particular in the understanding and memorization of information.

The advantages of Mind Maps for studying

  • It is possible to distinguish the main ideas from the secondary ones at a glance: it follows a greater understanding of the topics and ease in relating them.
  • They facilitate the memorization of information because they respect the functioning mechanisms of the brain and memory. Result? You already memorize 60% of the information during its writing.
  • They save time both in the creation and in the review phase, as they contain only the information necessary for memory. To give you an idea, a map on an A4 sheet (that of printers, so to speak) can easily summarize 20/30 pages of a university or schoolbook.
  • The reasoning that precedes their writing “forces” the brain to a high analysis and understanding of the contents; it follows ease of staying focused and attentive during drafting.

There would be other advantages, but I think what you have just read may have convinced you that this technique must become part of your study method.

So, let’s see how to build them… And to have more time to organize your learning with mind maps, you might want to get help from an online essay writer.

Create Mind Maps? Here are the steps

1) Take all the necessary materials: pencil, eraser, colored pencils, A4 format sheets.

2) Put the paper horizontally, so as to make better use of the space and your field of vision (think about it, do we have our eyes arranged vertically or horizontally? Here is the reason for this advice: make the most of our biology to be more effective).

3) Define the starting point, which by convention corresponds to the “noon” of the clock (= at the top and in the horizontal center of the sheet); then define the direction of travel, which by convention is always the clockwise one and from the center to the outside (as well as the direction of travel of our way of writing is from top to bottom and from left to right).

4) Write the topic of the map in the center of the sheet (remember, all the writings must be printed in capital letters, to facilitate reading and therefore also memorization).

5) The time has come to insert the Branches, which will bring the Keywords with them. They will start from the center to extend to the sides. The branches closest to the center represent the subtopics of the central title and the further we go, the more we go into detail. NB. Remember to organize the spaces well when you draw the branches because they will have to contain the keywords and images necessary for the memory … All things that you will insert later.

6) And now enter the keywords, which are used to remind you of a concept that you have already understood and learned. E.g. If you make a mind map on the study method, a keyword could be “Cornell Method”. At that point, that word will remind you of everything you need to know about that Method and that is that it is a system for taking notes that works in that particular way and that has those certain advantages, etc… This information is not shown on the map, because already you have memorized them. In the map, you only have the keyword “Cornell method” which will remind you, that is, information already stored/learned.

7) The time has come to memorize the maps and we will do it by inserting the images, which will have the aim of reminding us of the keywords we have entered. Why do we use images? Because our memory is purely visual in nature (Do you want proof of this? You know when you see someone, you remember his face, but you don’t remember his name?). Well, the time has come to ask you “which image could remind me of that keyword?”; once found, draw it next to the keyword itself.

8) Now look at the map well, photograph it mentally, paying attention to all the details.

9) Done? You have stored an avalanche of information! Now, if you want, you can try to hide the Map and mentally retrace it. You will see that it will be child’s play.

In the End

Does it seem difficult to you? The reality is that you really only need to practice a little and it will become very easy for you to make your own Mind Maps. And believe me, at that point, you won’t be able to do without it!

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